Cortés resembled the god’s description from the legend. A mural at the Museo de la Ciudad de México depicts the … In When Montezuma Met Cortés, the American historian Matthew Restall examines documents concerning the military conflict that set the Aztecs in opposition to the Spanish empire in 1520. There are three major strategies that people use to make sense of strangers: These three strategies ultimately fail because they operate under the assumption that simple clues are enough evidence of a stranger’s internal thoughts or intentions. I answered him in respect to all that he had said, expressing my acknowledgments, and adding whatever the occasion seemed to demand, especially endeavoring to confirm him in the belief that your Majesty was the sovereign they had looked for; and after this he took his leave, and having gone, we were liberally supplied with fowls, bread, fruits, and other things required for the use of our quarters. In recognition of the quincentenary of the Spanish invasion of the Aztec Empire, Matthew Restall draws from his recent book, When Montezuma Met Cortés: The True Story of the Meeting that Changed History , to propose that it is time to upend the … In a departure from traditional tellings, When Montezuma Met Cortés uses “the Meeting”—as Restall dubs their first encounter—as the entry point into a comprehensive reevaluation of both Cortés and Montezuma. Montezuma was dead, Cortés had lost two-thirds of his men fleeing Tenochtitlán, and the Spanish had taken refuge with the Tlaxcaltecs, the Aztecs' traditional enemy. His aim is to reassess the process of simplification by which Cortés, in his letters to King Carlos I (also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire), justified the permanent occupation of Mexico and gave it … The city is connected to the rest of the land by several causeways.] In this way l was for six days amply provided with all that was necessary, and visited by many of the nobility. After a short space of time, when my people were all bestowed in their quarters, he returned with many and various jewels of gold and silver, feather work, and five or six thousand pieces of cotton cloth, very rich and of varied texture and finish. Yet we, as a society, are incompetent at making sense of the strangers we come across. Montezuma’s capture and murder at the hand of Cortés, followed by the death of nearly 20 million Aztecs. Throughout human history, the vast majority of human interactions occurred between neighbors, relatives, or people that had at least some things in common, such as worshipping the same God. You’ll begin to see where those strategies came from. I am now going to my other houses where I reside; you will be here provided with every thing necessary for yourself and your people, and will suffer no embarrassment, as you are in your own house and country.". On the 500th anniversary of Cortés’ meeting with Montezuma II, the conquistador deserves a reconsideration, not cancellation. Either way, Montezuma always comes across as a diminished ruler, even a puppet. At the time I advanced to speak to Moctezuma, I took off from myself a collar of pearls and glass diamonds, and put it around his neck. He But when it comes to strangers, nothing is as simple as it seems, as we’ve seen with Cortés and Montezuma. This article is an excerpt from the Shortform summary of "Talking to Strangers" by Malcolm Gladwell. On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés first met Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, at the entrance to the capital city of Tenochtitlan. 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Drawing on rare The two leaders, Cortés and Montezuma, knew absolutely nothing about each other’s language, civilization, or cultural nuances. But to Cortés, Montezuma’s humble words sounded like surrender. The meeting took place on one of the causeways leading to the city, so Cortez must have been quite awed by the spectacle. On any given day … In a departure from traditional tellings, When Montezuma Met Cortés uses "the Meeting"--as Restall dubs their first encounter--as the entry point into a comprehensive reevaluation of both Cortés and Montezuma. Compre online When Montezuma Met Cortés: The True Story of the Meeting that Changed History, de Restall, Matthew na Amazon. Why does meeting a stranger face-to-face sometimes make it harder to make sense of that person than it would be without meeting them at all? And you have the power in all this land, I mean wherever my power extends, to command what is your pleasure, and it shall be done in obedience thereto, and all that we have is at your disposal. Descendants of Aztec emperor Moctezuma II and Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés met in Mexico City on Friday to mark the 500th anniversary of their ancestors’ first meeting… We’ll cover how Cortés and Montezuma met, and look at how this meeting between two people of completely different backgrounds, mindsets, and assumptions is indicative of misreadings of strangers that are common today. Cortés wrote his account of the famous meeting with Montezuma a year after it happened. He took from a vase of flowers a chain made of shells ornamented with gold and joined by links of gold, and as he threw it over Cortes' head, he said, "This palace belongs to you, Malinche, and to your brethren. In Restall’s telling, Montezuma’s monumental miscalculation—allowing Cortés into Tenochtitl á n—led not only to his own demise but also to the end of his empire. She’s published dozens of articles and book reviews spanning a wide range of topics, including health, relationships, psychology, science, and much more. Therefore be assured that we will obey you, and acknowledge you, for our sovereign in place of the great lord whom, you mention, and that there shall be no default or deception on our part. He afterwards came again to this country, after the lapse of much time, and found that his people had intermarried with the native inhabitants, by whom they had many children, and had built towns in which they resided; and when he desired them to return with him, they were unwilling to go, nor were they disposed to acknowledge him as their sovereign; so he departed from the country, and we have always heard that his descendants would come to conquer this land, and reduce us to subjection as his vassals; and according to the direction from which you say you have come, namely, the quarter where the sun rises, and from what you say of the great lord or king, who sent you hither, we believe and are assured that he is our natural sovereign, especially as you say that it is a long time since you first had knowledge of us. When Montezuma Met Cortés: The True Story of the Meeting That Changed History, by Matthew Restall, Ecco, New York, 2018, $35 Historian Restall of Pennsylvania State University has delivered an exhaustively researched, forcefully argued and … The meeting of Cortés and Montezuma shows why they often result in failed interactions with strangers. Cortés also told them that one of the objects for which our great Emperor had sent us to their country was to abolish human sacrifices and the other evil rites which they practiced." Amanda received her Master's Degree in Education from the University of Pennsylvania. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction . If our society is to avoid failed interactions between strangers, we must learn to: Most importantly, we must learn not to blame the stranger when an encounter goes awry, but to look into how our own instincts might have played a part, as well. 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They had to go through a long and complicated chain of translation to communicate with each other. Moctezuma bade him welcome and our Cortés replied through Doña Marina, who he always had at his side, wishing him very good health. And the Spaniards looked at him, each examining him closely. The result? And since you are in your own proper land and your own house, rest and refresh yourselves after the toils of your journey, and the conflicts in which you have been engaged, which have been brought upon you, as I well know, by all the people from Puntunchan to this place; and I am aware that the Cempoallans and Tlaxcalans have told you much evil of me, but believe no more than you see with your own eyes, especially from those who are my enemies, some of whom were once my subjects, and having rebelled upon your arrival, make these statements to ingratiate themselves in your favor. On 8 November 1519, Moctezuma met Cortés on the causeway leading into Tenochtitlán and the two leaders exchanged gifts. Initially, the Spaniards were welcomed and met with gifts from Montezuma II, but Cortés was intent on taking over Tenochtitlán. He made the emperor his prisoner, taking control of the city and forcing Montezuma into the role of a puppet king. Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: Is It Working? This book is about why they often go wrong, and why we are so bad at understanding the strangers we come across. When Cortés was told that the Great Moctezuma was approaching, and he saw him coming, he dismounted from his horse, and when he was near Moctezuma, they simultaneously paid great reverence to one another. First meeting of Hernán Cortés and Aztec leader Montezuma II. Moctezuma came through the center of the street, attended by two lords, one upon his right, and the other upon his left hand, one of whom was the same nobleman who, as I have mentioned, came to meet me in a litter; and the other was the brother of Moctezuma, lord of the city of Iztapalapa, which I had left the same day; all three were dressed in the same manner, except that Moctezuma wore shoes, while the others were without them. Like this article? Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Cortés later melted these down for their monetary value. Shortform summary of "Talking to Strangers". Moctezuma gave Cortés the gift of an Aztec calendar, one disc of crafted gold and another of silver. Drawing on rare Why was Cortés able to conquer Montezuma and the Aztecs so easily? By looking at some stories from world history and recent news, you’ll begin to understand the strategies people use to translate the words and intentions of strangers. Upon meeting the Aztec ruler Montezuma II and discovering the capital, Tenochtitlán, Cortés and his men were in awe. The two leaders, Cortés and Montezuma, knew absolutely nothing about each other’s language, civilization, or cultural nuances. Montezuma was in the courtyard of the palace of Axayacatl waiting to receive Cortes and his train. But why? It is true I have some things of gold, which my ancestors have left me; all that I have is at your service whenever you wish it. Why we're all terrible at understanding the intentions of other people, How these misunderstandings can lead to tragic, fatal consequences, The 2 things you can do to better understand complete strangers. They walked on foot, then mounted In our modern, seemingly borderless world, we have no choice but to interact with strangers, which started, effectively, with Cortés and Montezuma. On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés first met Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, at the entrance to the capital city of Tenochtitlan. What happened when Hernán Cortés sailed from Spain to Mexico and met Montezuma? Thinking that the god had returned, … The houses you see are of stone and lime and earth. Painting by unknown artist of … Connected with the city is a wooden bridge ten paces wide, where the causeway is open to allow the water free ingress and egress, as it rises and falls; and also for the security of the city, as they can remove the long and wide beams of which the bridge is formed, and replace them whenever they wish; and there are many such bridges in different arts of the city, as your Highness will perceive hereafter from the particular account I shall give of it. And, you’ll begin to notice the patterns by which those strategies fail. "On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés first met Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, at the entrance to the capital city of Tenochtitlan. Montezuma’s native language, Nahuatl, was a reverential mode of speech. Aztec accounts of the event, compiled by Miguel Leon-Portillo shortly after and published as The Broken Spears, claim that Moctezuma (also Montezuma) believed Cortes was a god. Cortés said many other things very well expressed, which they would report them to their prince Montezuma. After having proceeded along the street, one of his servants came bringing two collars formed of shell fish, enclosed in a roll of cloth, which were made from the shells of colored prawns or periwinkles, held by them in high estimation; and from each collar depended eight golden prawns, finished in a very perfect manner, about a foot and a half in length. Encontre diversos livros escritos por These people [Tlaxcalans], I know, have informed you that I possessed houses with walls of gold, and that my carpets and other things in common use were of the texture of gold and that I was a god, or made myself one, and many other such things. In a departure from traditional tellings, When Montezuma Met Cortés uses “the Meeting”—as Restall dubs their first encounter—as the entry point into a comprehensive reevaluation of both Cortés and Montezuma. Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma, and the Fall of Old Mexico - Ebook written by Hugh Thomas. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma… When Montezuma spoke, he chose to portray false humility. During his march to the Aztec capital, Cortés gathers valuable allies among enemies of Montezuma 8 August 1519: Beginning of the march to Tenochtitlan Having skirmished their way along the coast, and met with Montezuma’s emissaries, Cortés and the conquistadors set out for Tenochtitlan from their settlement of Vera Cruz. He was supported on the arms of both, and as we approached, I alighted and advanced alone to salute him; but the two attendant lords stopped me to prevent my touching him, and they and he both performed the ceremony of kissing the ground; after which he directed his brother who accompanied him to remain with me; the, latter accordingly took me by the arm, while Moctezuma, with his other attendant, walked a short distance in front of me, and after he had spoken to me, all the other nobles also came up to address me, and then went away in two processions with great regularity, one after the other, and in this manner returned to the city. 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